What are Basophils?

Basophilic granulocytes (“basophils”) – are the least common of the five white blood cell types. When activated, basophils secrete or release many compounds including histamine and interleukin-4. Both compounds are important in the allergic response.

What are Eosinophils?

Eosinophilic granulocytes (“eosinophils”) are part of our immune system’s response to infection including from parasites. Eosinophils, along with basophils and mast cells, are important in allergic responses and in asthma.

What are Lymphocytes?

Lymphocytes are the second most common white blood cell (WBC). Lymphocytes are divided into larger cells that are also known as natural killer lymphocytes and smaller cells known as B and T lymphocytes. Natural killer cells are important in our immune system to defend against tumors and viral infections. They respond to alterations in the surface of tumor cells and infected cells. B and T lymphocytes adapt to infected cells by either a cellular response mediated by T lymphocytes or antibodies mediated by B lymphocytes.

What are Monocytes?

Monocytes, like the other white blood cells (WBCs), originate in the bone marrow, the complex spaces within many of our larger bones. Monocytes are responsible for eating foreign intruders (phagocytosis) and killing infected cells. Monocytes are important in triggering atherosclerosis that affects our arteries and can lead to heart disease and stroke.

What are Neutrophils?

Neutrophilic granulocytes (“neutrophils”) are the most abundant white blood cell. Neutrophils are an essential component of the immune system. They respond to bacterial infections and other types of inflammation. In an infection, neutrophils seep out of the blood vessels in response to factors released as sites of infection. The predominant cells in pus that we observe in a wound are neutrophils.

Albumin is the largest portion of total blood protein. Decreased blood albumin may indicate many disorders including poor nutrition and advanced liver disease. Modest decreases in albumin may be seen in people with low thyroid gland function and protein-losing conditions.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio – An alternative way to tell if the albumin or globulin levels in the blood are abnormal is to compare the level of albumin to the level of globulin. If both the albumin and globulin results fall within the specified reference ranges, then a high or low A/G ratio result is not generally considered significant. A high globulin level and low albumin/globulin ratio may suggest high production of globulin that may be due to chronic infections, autoimmune disease, multiple myeloma, and other medical conditions.

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found primarily in bone and the liver. Elevated levels may indicate the presence of bone or liver disorders. It is commonly increased when the bile duct is blocked which may be caused by gallstones.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme produced primarily in the liver, skeletal and heart muscle. ALT is present in the liver in a higher concentration than AST and is more specific for differentiating liver injury from muscle damage. ALT rises in the instance of liver disease.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme found in the liver and in cardiac and skeletal muscle. AST may rise in liver, heart, and muscle disorders. It can also rise following strenuous, prolonged exercise.

What are Basophils?

Basophilic granulocytes (“basophils”) – are the least common of the five white blood cell types. When activated, basophils secrete or release many compounds including histamine and interleukin-4. Both compounds are important in the allergic response.

What is Total Bilirubin?

Bilirubin is the main pigment in bile and a major product of normal red cell breakdown. It is helpful in evaluating liver function, various anemias and in evaluating jaundice, yellowing of the skin.

The BUN/creatinine ratio is a calculated value derived by dividing the urea nitrogen result by the creatinine result. This ratio can be helpful in determining whether elevated urea nitrogen is due to impaired kidney function or to other factors such as dehydration, urinary blockage or excessive blood loss.

What is Calcium?

Calcium is one of the most important elements in the body. It is essential for maintenance and repair of bone and teeth, heart function, muscle function, and blood clotting. Ninety-nine percent of the calcium in your body is contained in your bones and only one percent is in the blood. Although most of the calcium in the body is in the bones, the body regulates blood calcium levels very tightly, since its functions are essential to health and performance.

In the body, most of the carbon dioxide (CO2) is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate level. Changes in your CO2 level may suggest that you are losing or retaining fluid, which causes an imbalance in your body’s electrolytes. CO2 levels in the blood are influenced by kidney and lung function. The kidneys are mainly responsible for maintaining the normal bicarbonate levels. The CO2 level is interpreted with other results to aid in medical diagnoses.

A Complete Blood Count with Differential is one of the most commonly ordered tests for routine check-ups and physicals and measures the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelet levels, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Many times it is ordered as part of HRT/TRT screening.

A CBC test often includes:

  • Red blood cell count
  • White blood cell count
  • Platelet count
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • RDW
  • MCV
  • MCH
  • MCHC
  • Neutrophils
  • Neutrophils, Absolute
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
  • Lymphocytes Absolute
  • Monocytes Absolute
  • Eosinophils Absolute
  • Basophils Absolute

Chloride is one of the body’s minerals involved with water balance. Most body chloride comes from salt in the diet. A high chloride level may mean severe dehydration, certain kidney disorders or hyperventilation. A low chloride level may result from excessive vomiting, diarrhea, severe burns, excessive sweating or kidney failure. Borderline low or high levels of chloride have very little significance.

The total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a calculation obtained by dividing the total cholesterol level by the HDL cholesterol level and is another indicator of heart disease risk. A ratio of 5.0 or less is associated with a lower risk of heart disease. A ratio of less than 3.5 is highly desirable.

What is Total Cholesterol?

Total Cholesterol is a combination of three types of cholesterol: HDL, LDL, and part of triglycerides. High cholesterol may put you at risk for heart disease or stroke. A low cholesterol measurement can indicate other health conditions. It is possible for your total cholesterol to be high when your other cholesterol results are in healthy ranges. In this case, we recommend focusing on your triglycerides (if available), LDL, and HDL cholesterol results.

A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a test often used as part of HRT/TRT screening that measures 14 different substances in your blood and provides important information about your body’s chemical balance and metabolism.

A CMP includes test for:

  • Glucose
  • Calcium
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Chloride
  • Albumin
  • Protein, Total
  • ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
  • ATL (alanine transaminase)
  • AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
  • Bilirubin
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  • Creatinine

Creatinine is derived from muscles and released into the blood. It is removed from the body by the kidneys. When the creatinine level is elevated, a decrease in kidney function is suggested. For patients 50 years of age and older, and whom identify as African-American the upper reference range for creatinine is approximately 10-15% higher.

What are Eosinophils?

Eosinophilic granulocytes (“eosinophils”) are part of our immune system’s response to infection including from parasites. Eosinophils, along with basophils and mast cells, are important in allergic responses and in asthma.

Testosterone and estrogen are generally considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis.

This test directly measures the free T4 in the blood rather than estimating it like the Free Thyroxine Index (FTI or T7). Because it is considered more reliable than the Total T4, many labs choose to test Free T4 rather than Total T4.

A mathematical computation that estimates the free thyroxine index from T4 and T3 Uptake tests. The results tell estimate how much thyroid hormone is free in the blood stream to work on the body. In contrast to the Total T4 alone, it is less affected by estrogen levels. While this test is less commonly ordered, it is still of use in special situations such as pregnancy.

FSH stimulates testicular growth and enhances the production of an androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells, which are a component of the testicular tubule necessary for sustaining the maturing sperm cell.

Globulin is not measured directly. It is calculated as the difference between the total protein and the albumin levels. The globulins are a group of about 60 different proteins that are part of the immune system, which helps to fight and prevent infections. The globulins also play an important role in blood clotting and serve as carrier proteins for hormones.

Glucose (“blood sugar”) is the chief source of energy for all cells in the body. Glucose levels are regulated by hormones produced by your pancreas, including insulin. A glucose level outside the optimal range could be a sign that the body is not correctly producing or using insulin. These conditions are hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), prediabetes (elevated blood sugar), and diabetes (high blood sugar). For the most accurate result you should fast (not eat or drink anything but water) for at least 8 hours before your screening. If you were not fasting at the time of your screening, you should interpret your result against an optimal range of less than 140 mg/dL.

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that’s found in all your cells. There are two types, HDL and LDL. HDL, the “good” cholesterol, stands for high-density lipoproteins and it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver where it is removed.

A hematocrit test measures how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Hematocrit levels that are too high or too low can indicate a medical condition.

Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein found in red blood cells (RBCs), enabling the cells to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Measuring hemoglobin gives a picture of the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to every cell of your body. A low hemoglobin level may indicate anemia. Hemoglobin increases with altitude adaptation. In general, women have lower hemoglobin values than men.

IGF-1, LC/MS – Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1, or Somatomedin C), a protein involved in stimulating somatic growth, is regulated principally by Growth Hormone (GH) and nutritional intake. IGF-1 is transported in serum by several proteins; this helps maintain relatively high IGF-1 plasma levels and minimizes fluctuations in serum IGF-1 concentrations.

Measuring IGF-1 is useful in several growth-related disorders.

Cholesterol travels through the blood on proteins called “lipoproteins.” Two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein). LDL, sometimes called “bad” cholesterol, makes up most of your body’s cholesterol.

When your body has too much LDL cholesterol, the LDL cholesterol can build up on the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup is called “plaque.” As your blood vessels build up plaque over time, the insides of the vessels narrow. This narrowing blocks blood flow to and from your heart and other organs. When blood flow to the heart is blocked, it can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack.

LH is made in the pituitary gland of the brain. LH is a sex hormone that affects how a person’s reproductive organs work and in males affects the testes.

Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. A lipid panel measures the level of specific lipids in the blood.

A lipid panel typically includes:

  • Total Cholesterol
  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
  • Triglycerides
  • Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C)
  • Non-HDL-C
  • Cholesterol/HDL Ratio

What are Lymphocytes?

Lymphocytes are the second most common white blood cell (WBC). Lymphocytes are divided into larger cells that are also known as natural killer lymphocytes and smaller cells known as B and T lymphocytes. Natural killer cells are important in our immune system to defend against tumors and viral infections. They respond to alterations in the surface of tumor cells and infected cells. B and T lymphocytes adapt to infected cells by either a cellular response mediated by T lymphocytes or antibodies mediated by B lymphocytes.

The MCH value refers to the average quantity of hemoglobin present in a single red blood cell. Hemoglobin is the protein in the red blood cells that transports oxygen to your body. The MCH value is related to two other values, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Combined, MCH, MCV, and MCHC are sometimes referred to as red blood cell indices.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is the calculation of the percentage of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in the individual red blood cells (RBCs). A high MCHC indicates an increased level of hemoglobin in your RBCs. Increased MCHC is usually a technical rather than a medical issue. A high level may be caused by distortions in the shape of your RBCs caused by problems in collection, transport or storage of the blood sample. A low MCHC indicates a decreased level of hemoglobin in your RBCs. Decreases can be associated with certain types of anemia, such as iron-deficiency or the hereditary disease, thalassemia.

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your red blood cells (RBCs). A high MCV indicates large, or macrocytic, RBCs. A high MCV is associated with specific varieties of anemia and can indicate a deficiency in vitamin B12 or folic acid. A low MCV indicates small, or microcytic, red blood cells. A low MCV is associated with anemia, and can indicate an iron deficiency, chronic illness or the hereditary disease, thalassemia.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell. They help fight bacteria, viruses, and other infections in your body. Along with other types of white blood cells, monocytes are a key element of your immune response.

Other white blood cells:

  • Basophils secrete chemicals to help fight allergies and infectious agents.
  • Eosinophils attack parasites and cancer cells and assist with allergic response.
  • Lymphocytes produce antibodies against bacteria, viruses, and other invaders.
  • Neutrophils kill bacteria and fungi.

Platelets are small blood cells that are essential for blood clotting, the process that helps you stop bleeding after an injury. A MPV test measures the average size of the platelets.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help kill bacteria and fungi. Along with other types of white blood cells, Neutrophils are a key element of your immune response.

Other white blood cells:

  • Basophils secrete chemicals to help fight allergies and infectious agents.
  • Eosinophils attack parasites and cancer cells and assist with allergic response.
  • Lymphocytes produce antibodies against bacteria, viruses, and other invaders.
  • Monocytes help fight bacteria, viruses, and other infections.

Non-HDL cholesterol is one’s total cholesterol minus HDL (good) cholesterol and shows all the bad cholesterol circulating in your blood. For example, if your total cholesterol is 185 and your HDL cholesterol is 45, your non-HDL cholesterol is 140.

This is helpful to know because the level of non-HDL may predict the risk of cardiovascular disease even better than LDL (bad) cholesterol because the non-HDL number also shows your levels of VLDL, IDL, and chylomicroms. All of those are linked with the “bad” protein, apoB, and are plaque-producing and artery-clogging.

What are Platelets?

Platelets are the smallest type of cell found in the blood. Platelets help stop bleeding after an injury by gathering around the injury site, plugging the hole in the bleeding vessel and helping the blood to clot more quickly. Platelet counts may be done if you are prone to bruising or if you are about to have surgery. The platelet count may change with bleeding disorders, heart disease, diabetes and inflammatory disorders.

Potassium is one of the body’s principal minerals, found primarily inside cells. It helps maintain water balance as well as proper function of nerves and muscles. Low or high levels in the blood are of critical significance and should be evaluated by your healthcare provider. This is especially important if you are taking a diuretic or heart medication. A high level may indicate kidney or liver disease, too much medication or bodily injury, such as a burn. A low level of potassium can develop rapidly, most frequently produced as a side effect of drugs that cause increased urination.

What is Total Protein?

Total protein has two main components—albumin and globulin. The body’s protein is derived from ingested food and therefore is influenced by the quality of diet, as well as by liver and kidney function.

PSA refers to a protein, which is made by the prostate gland, with some of it circulating in a man’s blood. The PSA test can be helpful in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

A RDW test measures the range in both volume and size of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Red blood cells move oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body. If the red blood cells are larger than normal, it could indicate an issue.

This test is used to find out how many red blood cells (RBCs) you have. It’s also known as an erythrocyte count. The test is important because red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the body and the number of cells can affect how much oxygen your tissues receive.

Used to measure the level of sex hormone binding globulin in the blood. SHBG is a protein made by your liver and it tightly binds and transports three sex hormones found in men; estrogen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and testosterone.

The critical test factor is testosterone levels. SHBG controls the amount of testosterone that your body tissues can use. The is a common HRT/TRT screening test that can help diagnose various conditions and diseases, including androgen deficiency and hypogonadism.

Sodium is one of the body’s principal minerals, regulated by the kidneys. It plays an important role in water balance in your body. A high level can be caused by dehydration, excessive salt intake in your diet or certain diseases. A low level of sodium may be caused by diarrhea, vomiting, or excessive sweating. Numerous drugs, including diuretics, certain blood pressure medications and steroids, may alter the sodium level.

The thyroid produces a hormone called triiodothyronine, known as T3, and testing may help screen for thyroid problems.

The thyroid produces a hormone called triiodothyronine, known as T3, and most of it binds to protein. The T3 that doesn’t bind to protein is called free T3 and circulates unbound in the blood. Measuring T3 may help screen for thyroid problems.

Thyroxine, also known as T4, is a type of thyroid hormone and its measurement in the blood may help screen for thyroid issues.

Testosterone can be measured as “free” (that is, bioavailable and unbound) or more commonly, “total” (including the percentage which is chemically bound and unavailable). There is no widely accepted definition of what is considered too low a level of testosterone that defines hypogonadism. One definition proposed by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists states, “Hypogonadism is defined by free testosterone level that is below the lower limit of (the reference range) for young adult control subjects. Patients with low-normal to subnormal range testosterone levels warrant a trial of testosterone.”

Most testosterone in the blood attaches to 2 proteins: albumin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). However, some testosterone is not attached to proteins and considered “free”. Free testosterone and albumin-bound testosterone are also referred to as bioavailable testosterone, the testosterone that is easily used by the body.

A total testosterone test measures free testosterone as well as the amount of hormone bound to the proteins albumin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Free and albumin-bound hormone are bioavailable, active in the body, and easily used.

Triglycerides are fats composed of fatty acids and glycerol. They are moved through the bloodstream by combining with proteins to form particles called lipoproteins. Triglycerides pass from the liver to other parts of the body that need lipoproteins for energy. Triglycerides then return to the liver where they are removed from the body. The level of triglycerides in your blood tells how well your body processes the fat in your diet. Accurate results require fasting for 9 to 12 hours (no food or drink except water and medication) prior to testing.

This is a routine blood test that reveals important information about how well the kidneys and liver are working as well as measuring the amount of urea nitrogen that’s in your blood.

White blood cells (WBCs) are the body’s protectors. Each of the five varieties of WBCs plays its own specific role in defending your body against illness or injury.

The Z-score matches bone mineral density with individuals of the same age, gender, and ethnicity, following are particular formula.